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Reading 1 | PTE Fill In Blanks
A sewing machine is a machine used to stitch fabric and other materials together with thread. Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial Revolution to decrease the amount of manual sewing work performed in clothing companies. Since the __introduction/invention/production/examination__ of the first working sewing machine, generally considered to __has been/would been/have been/had been__ the work of Englishman Thomas Saint in 1970, the sewing machine has greatly__improved/evaluated/happened/injured__ the efficiency and productivity of the clothing industry. Home sewing machines are designed for one person to sew individual items while using a single stitch type. In a modern sewing machine, the fabric easily __designs/moves/tied/glides__ in and out of the machine without the inconvenience of needles and thimbles and other such tools used in hand sewing, automating the process of stitching and saving time. Industrial sewing machines, by contrast to __international/domestic/local/previous__ machines, are larger, faster, and more varied in their size, cost, appearance, and task.
Reading 2 | PTE Fill In Blanks
One of the characteristics of ‘good’ information identified earlier was that it should be ‘balanced’. In an ideal world, ‘objective’ or ‘balanced’ information would present all the __verdict/evidence/figures/resources__ for and against, and leave you to weigh this up and draw conclusions. In the real world, however, we recognise that all information presents a position of __interest/benefits/income/revenue__, although this may not necessarily be intentional. Objectivity may therefore be an unachievable ideal. This means that the onus is on you as the reader and user of the information to __eliminate/improve/foster/develop__ a critical awareness of the positions represented in what you read, and to take account of this when you interpret the information. In some cases, authors may explicitly express a particular viewpoint – this is perfectly valid as long as they are open about the perspective they represent. Hidden bias, whether or not it is __increasing/intended/deliberate/correct__, can be misleading. This could be particularly important in a subject area where there is controversy (e.g. genetically modified food, abortion).
Reading 3 | PTE Fill In Blanks
A novel __tool/equipment/device/instrument__ for helping farmers to dry out hay more quickly has won a University of Glasgow graduate a prestigious design award. Gavin Armstrong, 23, from Kippen, Stirlingshire __raised/scooped/rose/evolved__ the Glasgow 1999 Design Medal for his design for a swath inverter – a device for flipping over a hay crop to help dry out the damp underside. Dry hay is an essential farmyard food source for sheep and cows. Gavin came up with the design as part of his Product Design Engineering degree course, run in __conjunction/intersection/disagreement/dispute__ with Glasgow School of Art. He built a working prototype of the device which is powered and towed by a tractor and uses a pair of parallel belts to invert the swath. The rollers are driven from one hydraulic motor and are geared so as to spin at the same speed and in opposite directions __enhancing/ensuring/fostering/convicting__ that the touching inner two faces of the belt that perform the inversion move rearwards at the same speed.
Reading 4 | PTE Fill In Blanks
Underground houses have many advantages over conventional housing. Unlike conventional homes, they can be built on __rocky/bumpy/steep/shaky__ surfaces and can maximize space in small areas by going below the surface. In addition, the materials excavated in construction can be used in the building process. Underground houses have less surface area so fewer building materials are used, and __maintenance/restoration/fix/mend__ costs are lower. They are also wind, fire, and earthquake resistant, providing a secure and safe environment in extreme weather. One of the greatest benefits of underground living is energy efficiency. The earth’s subsurface temperature remains stable, so underground dwellings benefit from geothermal mass and heat exchange, staying cool in the summer and warm in the winter. This saves around 80% in energy costs. By __rejecting/incorporating/installing/developing__ solar design this energy bill __have to be reduced/can be reduced/can be risen/can be raised__ to zero, providing hot water and heat to the home all year round.
Reading 5 | PTE Fill In Blanks
France was still essentially a feudal nation with lords, due to a range of ancient and modern rights from their peasants who comprised about 80% of the population and the majority lived in rural contexts. France was a predominantly agricultural nation, even though this agriculture was low in productivity, wasteful, and using out of date methods. An attempt to introduce modern techniques from Britain had not succeeded. Inheritance laws, __additionally/however/nevertheless/whereby__ estates were divided up among all the heirs, had __legitimated/left/federated/burdened__ France divided into many tiny farms; __even/inadvertently/despite/if__ the large estates were small when compared to other European nations. The only major region __under/into/of/upto__ large-scale farming was around Paris, where the always hungry capital city provided a convenient market. Harvests were critical but fluctuating, causing famine, high prices, and riots.
Reading 6 | PTE Fill In Blanks
The discovery of a set of what look like ancient hominin footprints on the island of Crete could throw our understanding of human evolution into disarray. Received wisdom is that after __merging/have been merged/splitting/have been split/__ from the chimp lineage, our hominin ancestors were confined to Africa until around 1.5 million years ago. The prints found in Crete, however, __relevant/belonged/correlated/consistent__ to a creature that appears to have lived 5.7 million years ago – suggesting a more complex story. More research is needed to confirm what kind of animal made them. However, the prints seem to __have been made/being made/have been nurtured/have been created__ by a creature that walked upright, on the soles of clawless feet (rather than on its toes), with a big toe positioned like our own, rather than sticking out sideways like an ape’s. It may yet turn out to have been a __eventually/deliberately/consequently/previously/__ unknown non-hominin that had evolved with a human-like foot; but the explanatory paper, in the Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, is not the first to suggest that hominins could have originated in Europe. A few months ago, a team put forward __verdict/incident/evidence/tribute__, gleaned from fossils found in Greece and Bulgaria, that a 7.2 million-year old ape known as Graecopithecus was in fact a hominin.
- have been
- can be reduced
- have been made
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